IMT solve assignment for IMT-03 MARKETING RESEARACH
SECTION - A
1. a. Explain the scope of marketing research covering various types of marketing problems.
b. Briefly discuss the limitations of Marketing Research.
2. How do the four components of a Marketing Information System serve the informational needs of a marketer? Discuss in detail.
3. a. What is the significance of defining a research problem correctly?
b. Discuss the four aspects related to defining or formulating the problem effectively.
4. a. What is a research design?
b. Compare & contrast exploratory, descriptive & causal research designs.
5. a. Distinguish between primary & secondary data. Support with examples.
b. What are the problems & advantages associated with primary & secondary data?
SECTION - B 1. a. Compare and contrast Observation and Communication methods.
b. What are the advantages and drawbacks associated with Observation methods?
2. What are various factors to be taken into consideration while designing a questionnaire? Discuss in detail.
3. Discuss the four types of measurement scales used for measuring variables. Support with illustrations.
4. Explain the following sampling concepts in detail. Support with illustrations.
d. Sampling unit
e. Sampling frame
f. advantages and limitations of sampling
5. Briefly discuss the three major techniques used in qualitative research studies. Highlight their advantages and limitations.
SECTION - C
1. a. What is Editing? Distinguish between a field edit and a central-office edit.
b. What are the principles that should be kept in consideration while classifying data into meaningful categories?
2. a. What is a Hypothesis? Explain the terms – Null Hypothesis and Alternate Hypothesis.
b. What are the two types of errors associated with Hypothesis Testing?
3. Explain the following methods of bi-variate or multi-variate analysis with examples of situations where each of these methods can be used:
b. Cluster analysis
c. Conjoint analysis
d. Factor analysis
e. Multiple regression
4. a. What is the significance of Forecasting?
b. Discuss and compare each of the subjective and objective methods of forecasting.
5. a. Briefly explain the stages involved in development of a new product. What are the various objectives of an advertisement?
b. Briefly discuss the scope and relevance of Advertising research and Media research for a marketer.
CASE STUDY - 1
Are consumers receptive to innovative packaging structures?
Throughout the world, marketers have come to realize that product success is directly related to consumer receptivity to not only their products but also to their packaging. Effective packaging is crucial in cluttered in-store environments where so many purchasing decisions are made each day. Shoppers tell us that packaging doesn’t influence them, that they don’t pay attention to it, and that marketers should spend less money on packaging, and thus lower the product’s retail price. However, the reality is that shoppers: · use shape, color, and typestyle to identify a brand. · formulate opinions of products based on the packaging . · make decisions in stores, where packaging is the key marketing communicator . Over the years, trends have developed in the packaging arena, they include: · a quest by marketers to better understand consumers and their shopping habits . · globalization - the search for effective communication through common global packaging (a primary example being Coca-Cola’s contoured bottle and worldwide graphic presentation) . · improvement in package labeling and the rapid growth of innovative sku’s. · innovations in packaging structures, specifically, the use of PET plastic bottles . Innovation in packaging structures offers marketers in virtually all categories a number of valuable competitive advantages, including perceived product uniqueness, proprietary ownership of the packaging structure, improved functionality - easier to grip, carry, reseal, etc., improved levels of shelf prominence in competitive clutter, which translates to an improved likelihood of stimulating impulse purchases at point-of-sale.
This shelf prominence issue is vitally important since it is generally acknowledged that in supermarket environments two-thirds of all purchase decisions are made at point-of-sale. In fact, on an average, shoppers expect to purchase approximately 10 items when entering a store, and generally walk out having purchased over 19. Based upon these realities, it is not surprising to see radically new packaging structures in virtually all product categories. The next major structural packaging innovation is about to surface in the beer industry, specifically, the marketing of beer in plastic bottles. Existing consumer research on this plastic beer bottle concept, points out how and how not to conduct packaging research. When a sample of 457 beer drinkers were questioned about the plastic bottle concept, but did not actually see, feel or touch a bottle, the results highlighted the barriers which must be overcome through effective advertising and promotion of beer in plastic bottles. Only 11 percent of beer drinkers said they were very likely to purchase beer in a plastic bottle, and only 29 percent said they were very or somewhat likely. Conversely, 52 percent said they were not at all likely to purchase beer in plastic bottles. Their primary concern was product taste/flavor. Reservations included perceptions that: · the plastic bottle would change the taste of the beer (the beer would pick up the taste of plastic) . · the product would not taste good as the plastic container would not hold the flavor. · the product would not stay fresh. · the plastic container would not keep the product cold enough. In addition, 14 percent indicated that the idea of drinking beer out of plastic just seemed wrong. Given these findings, it would not be surprising to see beer marketers discard the plastic bottle concept. However, when a separate sample of beer drinkers were provided the opportunity to see, feel and touch a plastic beer bottle and subsequently open the bottle and drink the beer, the results were dramatically different: · Consumers were highly favourable rating it an 8.0 on a 10-point scale. · The plastic container was perceived to have the look of glass and the unbreakable safety convenience of cans. · Beer drinkers also praised the plastic beer bottle for: o its light weight. o its being unbreakable (safer). o the beer’s better taste (versus cans). o its good feel (comfortable grip). o its appearance - "looks like glass". When the Research Agency sampled beer drinkers before and after tasting beer in plastic bottles, overall attitudes towards plastic beer bottles were overwhelmingly favourable with, 82 % of them rating the plastic beer bottle (after tasting the product) excellent or very good and 55% stating that they are ‘very likely’ to buy this product. The bottom line is that marketing beer in plastic bottles provides a hedge against aluminium cans, which now amount to 60 percent of volume, and the glass bottle, which is more costly, yet helps to enhance brand imagery. Structural innovations in packaging are occurring in virtually all categories. The use of plastic bottles in the beer category is just another instance of marketers taking advantage of new technologies to more effectively promote their products, convey points of difference, and educate and reinforce added value to the individuals who ultimately determine a brand’s success or failure - the consumer.
1. How did the attitude of consumers change so drastically towards plastic beer packaging? 2. What are the key insights for researches on new packaging concepts? 3. Elucidate the case of a product where innovative packaging has added value to the consumers?
CASE STUDY - 2
Avlon researchers find that normal rules don't apply when testing among Rural women
Nivedita, an interviewer for a data collection agency, approached a couple at the mall seeming to be hailing from a rural background and asked the woman, in English, if she would like to participate in a marketing research survey. The couple quickly walked away. A group of teenage girls overheard Nivedita and asked her if they could participate. They were from rural areas, they spoke English, and they would like to answer Nivedita's questions. Nivedita was ecstatic! She had filled a good portion of her quota with these helpful girls! The reason was simple: The "normal" rules for conducting a marketing research survey do not apply when the target sample is a Rural population. Fortunately, the Research Agency discovered this in the planning stages of their sensory evaluation formulation guidance study. Says Nivedita, “As we researched the topic of testing among Rurals, we found that most of our experience in testing among Avlon's customary target population simply did not apply. We acknowledged that fact and accepted the challenge of starting from ground zero. During each phase of the study, we encountered idiosyncrasies inherent to the Rural population and the fragmented Rural cultures. Through careful planning and a pilot study conducted prior to implementation of the actual study, we gained invaluable insights into ways to overcome some of the cultural barriers and ensure that the research was of the highest quality. While the number of Hindi/English bilinguals is growing, the majority of rural population speak only Hindi or are bilingual and prefer Hindi. Therefore, bilingual interviewers are a mus t . The interviewer should speak to the respondent in the language with which the respondent is most comfortable. In our study, to determine the potential respondent's language preference, the interviewer approached the respondent and asked her, in Hindi, if she would like the interviewer to speak to her in Hindi or in English. By speaking to potential respondents in Hindi first, we had a higher chance of reaching a larger proportion of this population on the first attempt. After the potential respondent replied, the interviewer continued the screening in the respondent's language of choice. This also determined the language of all subsequent printed material-instructions, questionnaires, reminder sheets-received by the respondent.
To be successful at this stage, we found that we had to go to the respondents, wherever that might be. Malls are commonly used sites for intercept screening; however, even carefully selected malls may not generate enough Rural traffic to fulfill the requirements of a study. Given these circumstances, we considered alternatives within the local Rural communities. We discovered a textile shop and beauty salon located on the neighbourhood's main street, which, in this instance, proved to be entirely appropriate and fertile grounds for the recruiting of female Rural respondents. As an enticement to full participation and completion, the study's incentives were packaged in bright, multicoloured miniature shopping bags overflowing with tissue paper and ribbons, and displayed on a counter in the salon in full view of qualifying respondents. Although the women did not know the specific contents of the bags, their appearance was attractive and evoked a high level of perceived worth. Census data show that approximately 65% of Rural females are married. Traditionally, the male is the head of the household and does not condone his wife's working outside the home. The female generally depends upon her husband for transportation; he accompanies her wherever she needs to go. Interestingly, we found that in these instances, when approaching a couple, it is appropriate to first ask the husband's permission for his wife to participate in the survey. Once he consents, the interviewer may speak to the wife. We also found that the daily routines of nonworking females are very different from those of working females. The majority of married Rural women do not work. They tend to rise and go to bed later than working women. Therefore, the most productive time to screen and recruit respondents is after 10 a.m. Our study required that the respondents interact with the product under normal use conditions at several time-points during the day. Hence, we assumed that a self-administered questionnaire worked well. When working with this specific population, we found it necessary to screen the potential respondent for literacy in either Hindi or English.
Central location tests are generally more successful than home use tests, because one has a captive audience. In designing this study, we gave consideration to the fact that a number of Rurals do not have easy access to a telephone. In case they do have a phone, Rural women may regard several telephone callbacks as a nuisance; the calls may anger them to the point where completion of the study is jeopardized. Central location tests also work well because the questionnaires are administered by the interviewer. In the case of home use tests, phone interviews or self-administered questionnaires must suffice. In the specific case of our study, a self administered ques tionnaire worked well because 1) the respondent was told exactly how to fill it out 2) the study was short 3) the questionnaire was kept simple . We found that translating the questionnaire from English to Hindi was very tricky. It was imperative that the two versions be equivalent; nuances of the words used in one language had to carry over to the other language. Other words, such as "hello" or "bye -bye" are universally understood by people, regardless of their ethnic background may not require translation. The Rural respondents with which we tested had limited education and had difficulty with the concept of gradation. For example, we found that they either liked or disliked something; it was difficult for them to quantify the degree of their liking or dis liking. Whether word scales or pictorial scales are used, the interviewer must explain the use of the scale to the respondent and ensure that she understands it. As an extension of this, we noted that Rural respondents, as a group, tend to rate higher or use the upper end of the scale more readily. We speculate that this could be due to their desire not to offend the interviewer. It could also reflect that the product category we were testing is designed to provide a pleasurable experience; thus, we got "good," "gooder," and "goodest"! This tendency must be taken into consideration during data analysis and interpretation. Large cash incentives are sometimes used in an effort to bolster returns. We've found that over-compensation has its repercussions. Also, cash may be generally preferred. However, in this particular case, we discovered a way to get around using cash as the incentive. We gave an assortment of beauty products manufactured by our company worth more than Rs.200. This approach had several advantages. Since the products were manufactured by us, we "bought" them at cost, which substantially lowered our out-of-pocket expenses. Further, the perceived value of the incentive was greater than the monetary equivalent.
1. Identify the inherent flaws in the approach adopted by Avlon researchers. 2. Suggest an alternate approach that would have been more effective to address these research objectives. 3. Briefly discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using cash incentives / gift assortments for compensating respondents.
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